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Papers and Articles Available Online about Mentoring

We continually scan the Internet for resources about mentoring. If you are concerned about "not reinventing the wheel," these papers might be of use. However, if you want to create your own ideas, then the wisdom of Joseph Campbell in Creative Mythology (1968, p. 4) might be useful:

"Some people spend a lifetime attempting to live according to cultural images that never quite fit them. Whenever a knight of the Grail tried to follow a path made by someone else, he went altogether astray. Where there is a way or path, it is someone else's footsteps. Each of us has to find our own way."

The papers listed here, their brief summaries, and the links to the original and usually complete article, are typically the most up-to-date available.

We make every effort to maintain live links, but with such rapid changes in how organizations publish or make available their materials, it is likey that some links may have gone stale or no longer go directly to the article. In addition some publications may have switched from free access to requiring a free or paid registration.

In other cases, we could only provide a hotlink to the actual publication and not the specific article. Usually the publication has its own search engine which will allow visitors to find the specific article on their site. Unfortunately, sites vary as to how easy or difficult they make such a search. Please let us know if you encounter any of these problems, so that we can fix them or alert other readers.

International Mentoring Association now includes a very comprehensive annotated bibliography on mentoring.

Subscribe to our free, non-commercial, and advertising free blog, SpiritMentor here. (Be sure to select "FOLLOW" in the left-hand column of the blog.)

Another excellent source of journal articles, magazines, and books on mentors and mentoring can be found at Questia, described as the world's largest online library. While brief previews are available, full articles require a paid subscription.

The Most Recent Papers and Articles Available Online about Mentoring

  • Carr, R. (2013). Does technology improve mentoring outcomes? (Retrieved April 8, 2013 from This paper provides a list of all the companies that have developed technological (software) solutions to helping organizations create quality mentoring relationships and programs. Contact details for each company as well as the name of their particular system are provided, and most of these organizations offer demonstrations of their systems to assist in determining value.

  • Cheston, A. (November 18, 2011). How to find the right mentor. Globe and Mail. (Retrieved November 18, 2011 This article provides some steps to find the right mentor. The key to finding a mentor, according to Lois Zachary who is quoted in the article, is in sending a message to the mentor that is tailored to how acting as a mentor will benefit the mentor. Others in the article comment on the question of who are your best mentors, and offer a number of suggestions: people who act as champions or advocates for you, but stay on the sidelines; people who offer a listening ear and help you see things from a different perspective; someone who recognizes your talents and helps you match them to your priorities; and people who offer relevant career advice.

  • Rockquemore, K.A. (November 14, 2011). Mentoring 101: Will you be my mentor? Inside Higher Ed. A university faculty member outlines the the specifics of how to attract a mentor, particularly for underrepresented faculty. The author examines some of the typical stressors and two fundamental errors that mentors make when attempting to help their peers. Also included are ideas on how to make the best use of a mentor, and how to develop a mentoring network (rather than relying on a single or "guru" approach to mentoring).

  • George, Y.S., & Neale, D. (2006). Report for Study Group Meetings to develop a research and action agenda on STEM career and workforce mentoring. American Association for the Advancement of Science. This paper which examines mentoring in a STEM context, includes a portion on the several definitions of mentoring, ranging from the traditional "interaction between a more experienced person and a less experienced person" to a more current definition where mentoring is described as "a two-way, mutually beneficial relationship. An overview of different types of mentoring is provided along with links to useful sources. Appendices include an extensive annotated bibliography on mentoring; a paper on mentoring: lessons learned and research questions; a paper that focuses on what a difference a mentor makes; another article on a graduate student mentoring blueprint; and an outline for a workshop on involving minority graduate students in STEM.

  • Welsul, K. (October 28, 2011). If mentors are so important, where are they? CBS Money Watch. A survey from LinkedIn revealed that 20 percent of women say they've never had a mentor; 50 percent say they've never met anyone appropriate; and 67 percent say they've never been asked. The author believes that women must speak up about their accomplishments, rather than waiting for someone else to do it, and recommends getting a coach to increase comfort doing so.

  • The Young Entrepreneur Council (November 10, 2011). 9 tips for finding the right mentor. Small Business Trends. When Generation Y entreprenuers were asked what they look for when seeking out mentorship from business leaders, they said: someone who knows both success and failure; has experience in relevant industry; aligns with my values; wants a relationship not just giving advice; has a track record of proven success; recognizes my path may be different; is straightforward; is interested in a mutually-rewarding connection; and understands what I'm trying to do.

  • Kulesza, B. (November 7, 2011). Where coaching and mentoring diverge. A leadership specialist shows that coaching and mentoring are related to each other and believes that when short-term performance improvement is needed, coaching is required; mentoring is best for long-term influence.

  • Carr, R.A. (October 2010). Advice-giving: The forbidden fruit of mentoring and coaching. The Mentor News (October 1, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from The history and pros and cons about advice-giving in helping relationships are detailed, and a five-step process is outlined that maximizes the impact of giving advice while minimizing the downside.

  • Carr, R.A. (October 2010). The five-minute mentor: Demonstrating mutual respect. The Peer Bulletin 193 (October 5, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A five-step process that focuses on goal-setting can be used to demonstrate respectful interaction and show how quickly a mentoring relationship that has valuable outcomes can be established.

  • Carr, R.A. (October 2010). Famous mentor pairings: The music business mentor. The Peer Bulletin 193 (October 5, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from This article highlights a well-known musician and music producer and what his mentor told him that had a significant impact on his life direction.

  • Carvin, B. (September 2010). The top ten reasons for being a mentor. The Peer Bulletin 192 (September 7, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A mentoring expert reveals 10 persuasive reasons to be a mentor.

  • Carr, R. (September 2010). Famous mentor pairings: The mentor of prevention. The Peer Bulletin 192 (September 7, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A tribute to the psychiatrist that began the community mental health movement in North America in the 1960's as seen through one of many practitioners he mentored.

  • Carr, R. (August 2010). Famous mentor pairings: Canadian artists leave more than talent as their legacy. The Peer Bulletin 191 (August 3, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Several world-renowned artists gained their success through being mentored and mentoring others.

  • Carr, R. (July 2010). Famous mentor pairings: Remebering the wizard of mentors. The Peer Bulletin 190 (July 6, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Known as the "Wizard of Westwood," and one of the greatest basketball coaches of all-time, John Wooden is remembered for the impact he had on students who didn't play basketball.

  • Petrin, R. (June 2010). Taking your mentoring program online. The Peer Bulletin 189 (June 1, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from An expert in online mentor program development shares the key elements necessary to engage successfully in online mentoring, particularly with the use of an e-based software system.

  • Carr, R.A. (June 2010). Being a giraffe instead of a bystander The Mentor News (June 22, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from An analogy drawn from how giraffes protect each other is used to illustrate the power of a mentoring relationship in enhancing growth and development.

  • Carr, R. (June 2010). Famous mentor pairings: Molding contemporary popular music. The Peer Bulletin 189 (June 1, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Although a world-wide business, the songwriters and performers seek out the help of established artists; often help comes from unexpected places.

  • Carr, R.A. (June 2010). Merging Aboriginal traditions with peer mentor leadership training. The Mentor News (June 22, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Details about a training workshop curriculum that integrates peer mentoring with traditions and customs from Aboriginal culture.

  • Carr, R. (May 2010). Creating the foundation to bring peace and safety to our schools. The Peer Bulletin 188 (May 4, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Mentoring and peer assistance are not just worthwhile endeavors they are the necessary ingredients for keeping our children safe and helping them grow through adverse experiences.

  • Townsend, W. (May 2010). The importance of mentoring in leadership. The Peer Bulletin 188 (May 4, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A leadership expert describes what it takes to integrate mentoring with leadership.

  • Carr, R. (May 2010). Famous mentor pairings: How to become the new Mozart. The Peer Bulletin 188 (May 4, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Creative genius always needs a spark from an external source to keep the flame within burning.

  • Carr, R.A. (January 2010). Farewell to a troubled mentor. The Mentor News (January 25, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from The death of mega-star Michael Jackson stunned millions, many of whom looked to his creative genius as an inspiration. This story is both a tribute to and an analysis of what we can learn from great performer's troubled history.

  • Carr, R.A. (January 2010). Best practices: Boost or barrier to effective mentoring. The Mentor News (January 25, 2010). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Often sought for guidance, the quest for "best practices" in mentoring, the author proposes, may actually interfere with effective mentor program development.

  • Dickinson, K., Jankot, T., and Gracon, H. (2009). Technical report: Sun mentoring: 1996-2009. Menlo Park, California: Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems has an extensive history of promoting the value of mentoring within its organization. The leaders of the Sun mentoring mission have published a comprehensive scientific study of the outcomes of mentoring for the company. Some of their findings: mentoring produces a 1000 percent return on investment (ROI) for the company (every dollar spent on mentoring produces ten dollars of tangible value); mentoring creates networks across the company for knowledge transfer; mentoring acts as a catalyst for a wide variety of talents; and mentoring has boosted a diversity of ideas and innovation throughout Sun. The full report is available to members of the Peer Resources Network in the password protected area.

  • Tennessee Teachers Association (2009). Tips for Building a Positive Relationship with a Mentor (Retrieved August 26, 2009 from Twenty ideas on how to make the most of a mentoring relationship. While written for teachers being mentored by other teachers, the principles detailed apply to virtually all mentoring relationships.

  • Carr, R.A. (September 2009). Short-term mentors can lead to long-term results. The Mentor News (September 28, 2009). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from Historically, mentoring has been considered a long-term relationship, but current practices and circumstances may require relationships of shorter duration. Will they still yield beneficial results?

  • Carr, R.A. (September 2009). Use peer mentors to create engagement during new employee orientation. The Mentor News (September 28, 2009). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A unique peer mentor system that has focus and structure can be more powerful in bringing new hires up-to-speed and committed to the organization than traditional new employee orientation procedures that rely on manuals and HR departments.

  • Carr, R.A. (May 2009). Mentoring and coaching lessons from a high school reunion The Mentor News (May 14, 2009). (Retrieved October 5, 2010 from A common North American practice, attending high school reunions, is examined in terms of its value for learning, authenticity, and continuing growth of participants.

  • Sandberg, J. (March 19, 2008). It's time to ditch a bad mentor. The Globe and Mail, C6. Good mentors can be of exceptional value, but a bad mentor such as one who sabotages, bullies, seeks revenge, or exploits can be much worse than no mentor at all. In addition some mentors may be using outdated advice as relevant wisdom. Advice is provided on how to deal with these unhealthy situations, including writing a letter to the unwanted guide, having the mentor work with a different partner, finding value in how the mentor achieved success despite their unwanted attentions, and relying on more than one mentor. (This full article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Nolan, S.A., Buckner, J.P., Marzabadi, C.H., & Kuck, V.J. (February, 2008). Training and mentoring of chemists: A study of gender disparity. Sex Roles, 58, 3-4, 235-250. This study was conducted to compare women's and men's retrospective perceptions of the mentoring they received during their training and career development in chemistry. (Further details are available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Training Magazine (February 26, 2008). Mentee see, mentee do. Training Day [Blog]. To stimulate discussion this article discusses the importance of creating a culture that moves mentoring out of "kiss-up, brown-nosing" to actual intellectual dialogue. The article provides some guidelines for ensuring an open exchange (formal agreement, confidential assurance, off-site meetings, work-life journal keeping, and challenging topics). Opportunities are available on the site for reactions and comments. (Further details are available to Peer Resources Network members.)

    Foster-Turner, J. (2006). Coaching and mentoring in health and social care: The essentials of practice for professionals and organisations. Oxford, UK: Radcliffe. (Review available to Peer Resources Network members..)

  • Zachary, L.J. (December, 2007). What leaders must do to ensure mentoring success. Chief Learning Officer, 6, 12, 18-21. Mentoring is essential in today's competitive business environment. It combines the thirst for connection with the power of learning. Leaders must be involved from the very beginning if mentoring is to be successful. This mentoring expert describes eight requirements for leaders who want to ensure sustainability of mentoring within their organization and eight strategies to ensure success and shares ideas on how to implement them. This list of eight can be used as a checklist to determine likelihood of success in any organization. (This full article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Mills, J., Francis, K., and Bonner, A. (2008). Walking with another: rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13, 1, 23-35. Australian nurses were interviewed and the authors found that creating supportive environments that include developing relationships such as mentoring is a potential solution to local staffing needs that does not require intensive resources. Experienced nurses engaged in clinical practice have the potential to cultivate and grow new or novice nurses — many already do so. Recognising their role and providing support as well as development opportunities will bring about a cycle of mentoring within the workplace. (This full article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Vazsonyi, A.T., and Snider, J.B. (2008). Mentoring, competencies, and adjustment in adolescents: American part-time employment and European apprenticeships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 1, 46-55. Based on the conceptual argument that the European apprenticeship might explain cross-national variability in adolescent adjustment, the current investigation tested the relationships between mentoring experiences, namely joint activities with mentors as well as perceived mentoring behaviors by unrelated adults in the work setting, and measures of both psychosocial competencies (job skills, self esteem, and well-being) and measures of adjustment (alcohol use, drug use, and deviance). Contrary to the idea that the European apprenticeship may provide a unique "protective" developmental experience for youth in comparison with U.S. adolescents who work part-time, adolescents in both contexts benefited equally from good mentoring experiences. (This full article is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Foster-Turner, J. (2006). Coaching and mentoring in health and social care: The essentials of practice for professionals and organizations. Oxford: Radcliffe. A review of this book by mentoring and coaching expert Dr. David Clutterbuck is available in the Peer Resources Annotated Bibliography.

  • Van Bynan, J. (September 8, 2006). Apprenticeship or mentorship? Apprenticeship Network [Online]. (Retrieved October 18, 2007 from Confusion sometimes exists between the terms mentorship and apprenticeship. How are the same and how are they different? In this article the author proposes that the two methods of learning compliment each other. While apprenticeship can emphasize the tools and techniques associated with the workplace, mentorship has more to do with creating a learning culture, improve knowledge retention in an organization, and encourage employee engagement.

  • Institute for Corporate Productivity. (June 7, 2007). Coaching and mentoring programs are an underutilized leadership development tool.St. Petersburg, Florida: Author ( (Retrieved June 14, 2007 from While many corporations seek leadership improvement and most rate coaching and mentoring as important, a recent study of more than 300 organizations revealed that only 50 percent actually have such programs in place. Of those with programs in place, 82% believed that their coaching programs of average quality or below. Over 93% of mentors are recruited internally, and 68% of coaches come from in-house. Selecting coaches externally relied on recommendations from colleagues or other organizations (55%), business experience (71%), followed by recommendations and consulting experience. Mentor training occurred in 44% of the companies polled that use mentors, and 39% reported no training is required. Thirty-two percent use their mentors to train other mentors. (For more information about this study contact Greg Pemula at

  • Kaye, B., and Jordan-Evans, S. (June, 2007). Mentor them! Fast Company [Online only]. (Retrieved May 30, 2007 from The authors believe that managers spend too little time with their direct reports and that by increasing the time, they can have more of a mentoring impact. They provide some concrete ideas about what to do in the mentoring relationship (model, encourage, nurture, and teach organizational reality). They also suggest that one of the best ways of mentoring is to let the direct reports mentor the manager. Let them tell what they know; ask them how they see the world.

  • Trautman, S. (2006). Teach what you know: A practical leader's guide to knowledge transfer using peer mentoring. New York, New York: Prentice-Hall. The author created one of the first peer mentoring systems at a major corporation, and has taken his years of experience helping peers to transfer knowledge to each other and customized the program for a wider variety of organizations. This book is designed to assist with new employee orientation, support transitions from new assignments and promotions, prepare for employee retirements, build teams, roll out new technologies, and move forward after mergers and reorganizations. The book focuses on planning for knowledge transfer, clarifying roles for peer mentors, setting expectations, and establishing lesson plans, demonstrations, and mastery. (Available from

    Rivero, V. (u.d). Mentors guide students to turn interests into action. Fort Collins, Colorado: International Telementor Program. Details about how the International Telementor Program has connected more than 36,000 youth with real-world professionals through online mentoring. (Full article available to Peer Resources Network members by contacting

  • Whitney, K. (May 23, 2007). Reasons for failed mentor programs might be rooted in psychology. Chief Learning Officer. (Retrieved May 23, 2007 from Mentoring programs often fail because of a lack of trust between the mentor and partner, generational differences, personal dynamics, fuzzy or ambiguous expectations, or overly inclusive and unquantifyable program goals. But sometimes they fail because the mentor's heart really isn't in the connection; the mentor is not doing all he or she can do for their partner. This might be particularly true if the mentor perceives the partner as a competitor. The author quotes a mentoring expert who believes that if mentoring program is well-designed it must take into account the psychological factors that impact a relationship including the mentor's motivation for becoming involved. Too many programs emphasize recruiting and selecting mentors, but then fail to really examine closely the mentor's motivation for taking on the role.

  • Moses, B. (May 9, 2007). Mentoring is a two-way street. Globe and Mail, C7. A career expert provides advice on the importance of having a mentor, how to find and convince someone to be a mentor, the qualities of a good mentor, and tips for managing a mentoring relationship. (URL available to members of the Peer Resources Network.)

  • Hansen, K. (u.d.) ( The value of a mentor. (Retrieved June 9, 2007 from Mentors can be essential for a boost in job search and career growth. They provide more in-depth interaction than typical networking activities. The article details how to find a mentor on your own (check to see if your own organization provides a formal mentoring program; find someone you already admire and respect; decide what you need or skills you want; and don't ask your direct supervisor to be your mentor). A mentor must be someone you can respect, learn from as a role model, and give you good feelings as a result of meeting together. Trustworthiness and confidentiality are essential, and to ensure the mentoring progresses, discuss expectations, express appreciation, and be open to feedback. At the same time, the mentor should be highly interested in your goals and is more interested in coaching you to achieve them.

  • Avritt, M. (u.d.). Meet your mentor: Making the right connection can make a big difference in college — and even help your career. (Retrieved June 10, 2007 from A description of the value and influence of a mentor for colleges students as told by a biochemistry major.

  • Henry, J. (May 7, 2007). Tough targets help boys do better. (Retrieved May 8, 2007 from A school in Darlington (UK) has established what it calls "assertive mentoring" where staff members act as mentors to boys who underachieve. Most mentoring approaches are described as "too soft" and take a passive "how are things going" approach, according to the school headmaster, "allowing students to bluff their way through." When mentors challenge students to improve their performance, they are basically establishing a set of expectations. Because the focus is on academic achievement, the expectations are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely or "SMART" expectations. By gaining mutual agreement as to the expectations, the outcomes of mentoring are much more likely to benefit both parties, and match what the mentoring research says about the key factors that contribute to mentoring effectiveness.

  • Marofsky, M. (December, 2006). Be a mentor. Link&Learn eNewsletter. (Retrieved January 20, 2006 from
    The author begins this article with a humorous anecdote about seeing graffiti in a bathroom stall that read, "Be a mentor and make a difference." She identifies the advances that mentoring has made in contemporary society and particularly the power that mentoring has had at the corporate level. Most great mentors, she believes, have a learning, not teaching, focus. Great mentors tune in to the other person's intellectual and emotional needs, not as experts, but as people who genuinely care about another's experience. She encourages partners to consider writing an "help wanted" ad for a mentor and in that ad describe what key qualities they are seeking. The author also provides advice about how to keep formal mentoring programs from failure and frustration by helping the mentors to understand that mentorship is a two-way conversation with benefits to the mentor; that trust is essential and may take time; and that if mentoring is being established for diversity issues, trustworthiness and genuine conversation are essential for success.

  • George-Leary, A. (October, 2006). Holistic approach to learning. T+D Magazine. Details about the mentoring programs initiated by Booz Allen Hamilton, a corporate consulting firm with 18,000 employees. The firm uses a two-day process called "Discover Booz Allen" where seasoned executives connect with new hires on what it takes to be successful at the company. The focus is on reducing attrition. The company also provides group mentoring circles where experienced staff meet with junior employees to share insights on what it takes to be successful. Mentors participate in orientation sessions and receive six two-hour training sessions. Other intiatives to improve retention, knowledge management, and career development are discussed. (A copy of this article is available to members of the Peer Resources Network.)

  • Ford, V. (2003). Am I mentor-ready? Boston, MA: Novations Group, Inc. (Retrieved November 9, 2006 and available in the Peer Resources Password Protected Area.) Five characteristics typically considered by in-house mentors when deciding whom to take on as a partner. A useful checklist and a description of each characteristic are provided. This article can help potential partners learn how to attract mentors.

  • Ford, V. (2003). Am I ready to mentor? Boston, MA: Novations Group, Inc. (Retrieved November 9, 2006 and available in the Peer Resources Password Protected Area.) Brief tips for being a successful mentor (set objectives, measure success, and demonstrate respect) and things to avoid (pulling rank, abusing information, making assumptions, and becoming too personally involved).

  • Witt, C.E. (December, 2005). Serious leadership: IBM builds a successful mentoring program. Holjeron. (Retrieved October 27, 2006 from MH&L) The mentoring program within IBM's Integrated Supply Chain organization helps future leaders identify short- and long-term goals and develop new skills. One executive describes mentoring as "more personal than coaching." The article identifies a number of factors that make this program successful including attitudes of mentor and partner, degree of rapport, and embedding the program throughout the organization and not just with human resources. One unique element is a job shadow opportunity where employees can follow an executive for the day.

  • Szumlas, B. (n.d.). Mentoring: A literature review. The Alberta Teacher's Association.
    Formal mentorship programs result in several positive benefits for both mentors and partners. Through mentoring, partners acquire skills and knowledge that enable them to cope with their various responsibilities. Mentors feel a sense of renewal. They become rejuvenated and are willing to try new teaching techniques. More importantly, mentorship participants believe that the experience improved their teaching. Thus, school jurisdictions should consider implementing formal mentoring programs—the positive self-esteem generated through mentorship can be a powerful way to electrify their organization.

  • Smith, F. (July, 2006). Learning from the pros: Animation students link up with professionals for modern day mentoring. Edutopia: The online news from the George Lucas Educational Foundation.
    Of all the arts, animation is probably the most mentor-oriented profession. Virtually all successful animators can identify a mentor who helped them learn how to manage the challenges, techniques, and career opportunities associated with this field. Schools across the US are now benefitting from professional mentors from ACME Animation, an organization that has developed the traditional apprenticeship model into an apprentice-mentor relationship model. Originally started in Los Angeles County (California), an increasing number of ACME alumni provide mentorship via the Internet, which lends itself to viewing and examining animation techniques. This article also includes a seven-minute video demonstrating how the interaction takes place and the value it has for both animators and their students. (The full article and video is available to members of the Peer Resources Network in the "Featured Resources" section of the password protected area)

  • Ganguli, I. (May 2, 2006). The science of mentoring. The Scientist: Magazine of the Life Sciences, 20, 4, 84.
    Mentoring skills are essential to career success in the sciences, but too few faculty know how to go about being a mentor. The author reports on a recent article in Science (January 27, 2006) where a survey of 150 mentors, those trained were significantly more likely to discuss expectations with their mentees and more likely to accessible and interested in their mentee's career. Scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have produced a mentor training program called Entering Mentoring in order to increase the number of trained mentors available to students in university settings. Their manual is available to Peer Resources Network members by emailing Rey Carr at

  • Abbott, I.O. (July/August, 2006). Mentoring bridges the generation gap. Diversity & the Bar (The professional magazine of the Minority Corporate Counsel Association) [Online]
    Today's workplace reflects at least four distinct generations (traditionalists, baby boomers, generation X, and millennials) each with its own characteristics. Such differences can have a dramatic impact on career development and retention. Mentoring is proposed by the author as a way to bridge the generation gaps. She identifies the generational barriers (divergent values about loyalty, different definitions of career success, and ideas about work/life balance), details how to flex a traditional mentoring paradigm to meet the needs of different generations, and provides five specific strategies to promote mentoring relationships in the modern workplace.

  • Goode, Sr., W.W. and Smith, T.J. (2006). Building from the ground up: Creating effective programs to mentor children of prisoners. The Amachi model. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
    There are 7.3 million children in the US with a parent in prison or under state or federal supervision, and as many as 70 percent of these children will also find themselves incarcerated during their lifetime. This booklet describes a collaborative mentoring program to (1) support the involvement of faith-based congregations from the youngsters' own neighborhoods; (2) promote strong personal relationships between youth and their mentors; and (3) manage and support mentoring matches to ensure that youth, their families and the mentors all work together. This report discusses the results of this highly successful program which has been implemented in 101 cities in 38 states. (The full report is available to Peer Resources Network members by emailing Rey Carr at

  • Baylor University (2004). Community Mentoring for Adolescent Development Waco, TX: Baylor University Health, Education and Wellness/National Mentor Partnership.
    This manual contains an extensive number of training sessions on topics such as goal-setting, decision-making, mentoring relationship stages, adolescent development, middle school transitions, self-awareness, alternatives to violence, and health concerns like smoking, drug use, HIV infection, teen pregnancy and eating disorders. Each chapter includes a suggested lesson plan outline, overhead visuals, and training activities for planning and presenting the content in that chapter. Bibliographies and template documents are included. (Available to members of the Peer Resources Network by contacting

  • Watson, J. (December, 2005). Put me in coach. Retrieved December 23, 2005 from
    Developing talent can be maximized through mentoring, but "boomers" may be too content being stars themselves to attend to nurturing others. Mentoring requires a change in attitude towards becoming more coach-like and less star-like. Good mentors, according to the author, offer empathy, time, resist the urge to take over, ask questions rather than provide answers, engage in role plays, voice their expectations and assumptions, view the partner as a whole person rather than just an employee or worker, and recognize that benefits that accrue to themselves as a result of mentoring.

  • Shaw, G. (November 12, 2005). Help is just around the corner. The Minerva Foundation eases women back into productivity. Vancouver Sun, E1-E2. Retrieved November 29, 2005 from
    While women don't have to be desperate to use the Helping Women Work progam of the Minerva Foundation, the organization provides considerable support to assist women experiencing transitions. Their mentors help clients to identify and build on strengths, clarify goals, generate confidence, and build their own pathways to success. This article briefly describes some of the stories that helped move women from doubts and hopelessness to high levels of personal satisfaction and career development.

  • Watson, J. (December, 2005). Help wanted: Mentors. Retrieved December 23, 2005 from
    Mentors can benefit anyone at any point in their career. If formal programs are not available, there are several ways to find a mentor. Brief examples of how various successful people found their mentors are provided. Mentors can come from outside the work place, and mentoring can begin even prior to making a career commitment. However, mentoring is a two-way street, so anyone planning to find a mentor should also consider what benefit there will be to the mentor. Preparing for mentor meetings can be a way to keep a mentor attracted, but the focus, according to the author, for mentor meetings ought to be on better positioning or goals, rather than whining and complaining. In these days, the author advises, it's probably a good idea to consider having multiple mentors, so finding someone you respect in a variety of areas and encouraging them to talk about their work (everyone likes to do this) will increase the likelihood of creating an on-going mentoring relationship.

  • McConnell, C.R. (November 10, 2005). Mentoring: Worthwhile activity or hollow exercise?
    NFIB: The Voice of Small Business. [Online.] Retrieved November 17, 2005 from
    A mentor is a valuable way to shape an employee's career and mentoring can also have benefits for the mentor and the organization. But for mentoring to be successful a mentor needs certain characteristics and so does the partner. If the wrong participants are chosen and not fully committed to the process, mentoring will be a futile activity.

  • Moses, B. (November 11, 2005). Mentor match: Choose one right for you. Globe and Mail, C1+.
    Having a mentor is recognized as an important predictor of career success. And while one of the roles a mentor can play is "truth-teller," it's essential for the success of the relationship to be clear about expectations and to ensure understanding about roles for both partners in the mentoring relationship. In addition, what's needed in formal mentoring may be different than the requirements in informal mentoring. For example, in formal mentoring, mutual respect maybe a key element of the success of the relationship; whereas in informal mentoring, "chemistry" might be more important. Strategies to make the most of mentoring for both the mentor and the partner are provided. (Contact Rey Carr for a copy of this article.)

  • Blake-Beard, S. (September, 2005). Critical trends and shifts in the mentoring experiences of professional women. Link&Learn eNewsletter. [Online]
    Mentoring plays a crucial role in the career advancement for women in a wide-range of industries. Women are more likely than men to be involved in cross-gender mentoring, and an increasing number of women are finding other women to act as informal mentors. This is, in part, due to the fact that not only are more women seeking mentors, but more women are willing to act as mentors. Contradicting the traditional admonition that supervisors should not be considered mentors, many of the women in the author's study cited supervisors as their informal mentors. In addition, role modeling was cited as equally as important a function of mentoring as the traditional factors of career and psychosocial functions of mentoring. An unusual finding in this study was that while informal mentoring for women reduced stress, increased career satisfaction, and improved productivity, and no differences were found in promotions for women with either male or female mentors, women with female mentors reported significantly lower income than females with male mentors. The author offers several explanations for this finding. (The complete text of this study is available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Conway, K. (August, 2005). Mentoring: Back to the basics. Training: Helping People and Business Succeed, 42, 8, 42.
    The author believes that too much emphasis has been placed on planning, designing and marketing of mentoring programs and too little on the heart of mentoring: the relationship between the mentee and the mentor. Consequently, "frustrating, unfulfilling mentoring unions are a dime a dozen." Rather than spending time deciding whether a mentoring program ought to be online, competency-based, or peer-based, etc., administrators ought to be helping participants develop strategic plans for the relationship. The author provides tips for the mentors, the mentees, and the administrators.

  • Boyle, M. (August, 2005). Most mentoring programs stink - but yours doesn't have to. Training: Helping People and Business Succeed, 42, 8, 13-15.
    While the title of this article overstates the case, the author provides ideas about why mentoring programs fail: too much structure, too little structure, inappropriate expectations, poor communication, and "lousy mentors." But the author also cites sources that show that companies that used mentoring improved shareholder returns, improved diversity, and increased the number of women in management positions. In actuality, this article is not about failures, but is mostly about the success and breadth of mentoring at one company: Ernst & Young.

  • Heffernan, M. and Joni, S-N. (August, 2005). Of proteges and pitfalls: A complete plan for getting the mentoring you need. Fast Company: How Smart People Work, 97, 81-83.
    Even with research that demonstrates that mentoring is "the single most valuable ingredient in a successful career for both men and women" pitfalls can still occur. The authors identify six key "rules" for manifesting a worthy mentoring relationship: be explicit about expectations, use formal mentors; value informal mentors; seek out expertise-based mentors; find mentors who enjoy the journey; consider multiple mentors to cover life directions, not just career growth. The authors also provide advice for mentors to to maximize the success of a match: choose someone to learn from; commit to at least an hour per month; understand limits and boundaries; support alternative viewpoints; connect the partner with other potential mentors.

  • Mentor/National Mentoring Partnership (2005). How to build a successful mentoring program using the elements of effective practice: A step-by-step tool kit for program managers (2nd Edition). Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Complete with a CD-ROM filled with evaluation forms and handouts, this powerful, comprehensive guide to virtually every aspect needed for successful youth-based mentoring is an exceptional document. In down-to-earth language, this newly revised and updated manual reflects the latest in quality mentoring research, policies and practices and includes more than 160 tools and templates. Designing, planning, managing, structuring and evaluating are covered in such depth that it's unlikely that anyone engaged in a youth mentoring program will need any additional resources even though it lists more than 100 references to additional resources. Unbelievably, an online version of this toolkit is available at no charge. Contact Peer Resources at for ordering information.

  • Treasury Board of Canada (n.d.). A guide to mentoring students. Retrieved July 26, 2005 from
    In an effort to help other government of Canada departments benefit from the Treasury Board's experience of mentoring students, they have published a guide that covers a number of topics such as what is mentoring, what mentors do, what makes a good mentor, how mentoring benefits the mentor, the student and the agency, and a sample mentoring agreement. As recommended by Peer Resources, the Treasury Board cautions users to customize the document to the culture of their own organization.

  • Stueck, W. (October 20, 2004). When rookie and veteran click. Globe and Mail, E10.
    The author profiles the recent entrepreneur competition held by a Vancouver, BC-based venture capital organization. The winner of the $60.000 prize stated that the most valuable thing he gained from the contest was the "advice of his mentor." Similar contests are held in other places in Canada where mentors are assigned to competitors.

  • Herszenhorn, D.M. (November 1, 2004). Veteran teachers in city schools help colleagues sharpen skills. New York Times [Online} (Retrieved from on November 1, 2004; free registration may be required.)
    In New York City more than 40 percent of teachers quit within three years and nearly half leave within five years. Most teachers leave because they feel unsupported rather than underpaid. This program of matching "lead teachers" who pair-up with less experienced colleagues and share the class half-time and act as mentors for the other half. The mentor teachers also receive an additional stipend of $10,000 and attend four hours of training a month. The program is touted as being much less expensive than the traditional mentoring program and not only contributes significantly to retention but also rejuvenates the spirit of the more experienced or "lead" teachers. The article includes first-hand accounts of the dividends provided by these pairings.

  • SJB Research Consulting, Inc. (April, 2004). E-mentoring for women of color in engineering and science: Final report to the engineering information foundation. New York, NY: Author.
    Women of color report higher degrees of satisfaction with an e-mentoring program than their white counterparts, and are more likely to say that their mentor was a top motivator for staying in school and continuing studies. Retrieved October 5, 2004 from

  • Empey, C. (September, 2004). Heart to heart. Canadian Living Magazine, 29, 9, 4.
    The magazine editor describes her mentors: a family member, people she worked for, and people she admired. She confirms that mentoring does not need to be a conscious act and describes mentoring as a "commitment to recognize, encourage and celebrate that which makes each of us unique."

  • McClelland, S. (September, 2004). Friends for keeps. Canadian Living Magazine, 29, 9, 186-193.
    Three adult to youth mentor pairings are profiled, all sponsored by Big Brothers, Big Sisters (of Canada). Mentors describe how they dealt with the, at times, difficult behaviors of their "littles." One mentor attributed her success in dealing with these difficult situations to her own mentor when she was a teen. Information about how to become a mentor and a short section on the research support for mentoring are included.

  • Adams, J.U. (August 2, 2004). How to be a good mentor. The Scientist.
    A mentor in science provides opportunities for students to engage in research and learn how to manage (or juggle) all the components. The mentor acts as a role model, provides space for mistakes, nudges, and encourages persistence. This article identifies award winners John Janovy, Varner professor of biological sciences at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, who was honored by the American Society of Parasitologists; Ellen Vitetta, professor at the University of Texas Southwestern and recipient of the American Association of Immunologists Distinguished Mentoring Award; and R. Clinton Webb, the Greenblatt Professor of endocrinology at the Medical College of Georgia and recipient of the inaugural Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen Distinguished Mentor and Scientist Award from the American Physiology Society. Their collective wisdom boils down to three interrelated themes: 1. value the person and his or her goals; 2. spend the time and energy; 3. realize it's your job. Difficult relationships can be reduced by staying focused on the goal rather than personal flaws (Ask your student where he or she wants to be in five years rather than telling the person they're not measuring up, and you're going to fire them.) Science has changed considerably since 20 years ago. Scientists now have to be versed in compliance and regulatory issues, interact with industry, understand the legalese of patents and material transfer, departmental politics, gossip, and such, so a mentor has a responsiblity to go beyond science in working with students. (Requires a paid subscription.)

  • Carr, R.A. (2004). Matching in mentoring: The key elements of a successful match. Victoria, BC: Peer Systems Consulting Group, Inc.
    Accurate matching based on similar profiles is often considered the best way to ensure relationship success in mentoring. This paper examines the wisdom of this method, outlines two other ways to manage connecting mentors with their partners, and suggests nine types of conversations that are more important than matching for the success of mentoring. (Available to Peer Resources Network members.)

  • Brown, D. (July 12, 2004). Mentoring boosts retention, T&D...but it's a long-term game. Canadian HR Reporter, 5+.
    Formalizing mentoring cna maximize it's benefits, but the majority of organizations, according to a study quoted, use informal mentoring. This article profiles some of the key elements of effective mentoring and quotes a number of authorities and features some of the outcomes from a financial institution's experience with mentoring. Two additional sidebars are included: one, is adapted from Peer Resources and details the advantages of mentoring for the mentor and for the partner, and the second provides a list and description of websites that provide mentoring case studies, examples of successful programs, and other resources.

  • Mossop, C. (July 12, 2004). Mentoring can drive business goals. Canadian HR Reporter, 6.
    Mentoring programs have become part of organizational strategy to replace retiring managers, develop new leaders, support knowledged management, and cut turnover.

  • Smith, T.J. (2004). Guides for the journey: Supporting high-risk youth with paid mentors and counselors. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
    One way of working with high risk youth is engage adults through mentoring, counseling, teaching and coaching in a range of settings. This paper explores the potential of a novel and emerging approach to increasing the level and quality of adult involvement with high-risk youth through extended contact with a paid mentor-counselor. A small number of programs where this approach is being tested and refined show some promise. The paid mentor-counselor is not cur-rently in widespread use, and the potential of the strategy may not be, on the surface, clear or compelling. This paper describes in a general way how paid counselors work in practice, and argues that they effectively complement paid professionals and unpaid volunteers who work with young people. It presents a rationale for the paid mentor-counselor, discusses how such pro-grams can be implemented and suggests why they should attract the interest of policy-makers and funders.

  • United States General Accounting Office (June, 2004). Student mentoring programs: Education's monitoring and information sharing could be improved (Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO No. 04-581). Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.
    While the US Department of Education is taken to task in this report for its less than stellar job of monitoring, auditing, and evaluating a variety of mentoring grants awarded under the No Child Left Behind Act, the report also emphasizes some key findings that appear to contribute to the successful delivery of mentoring programs for youth. In addition the report describes the importance of experienced mentoring programs acting as mentors for new mentor program service providers especially through providing comprehensive descriptions of how they deal with a variety of issues such as recruiting and retaining mentors, delivering mentoring services, and assessing outcomes. The full report is available at:

  • Maher, K. (May 31, 2004). Reverse mentoring: Executives pump junior staff for the wisdom of youth. Globe and Mail, B18.
    Several companies that use younger employees to mentor senior exectuvies are breifly profiled. Such mentoring leads to valuable insights, increased performance, and reducing the gap between the generations. Four tips are presented to make reverse mentoring work: mutuality, clear objectives, respectful interaction, and acceptance of difference.

  • Trejos, N. (May 12, 2004). The Lost Freshmen: Many Students in Area Have to Repeat 9th Grade. The Washington Post, A01.
    In Prince George's County, Maryland., last year, nearly 22 percent of the county's 12,229 ninth-graders had to repeat their freshman year. By creating specialized academies, providing mentors and offering study-skills classes, schools in the metro Washington, D.C., area are redoubling their efforts to help students make it through this watershed year. Article available online at: (Registration is free and may be required.)

  • Jekielek, S., Moore, K.A., and Hair, E.C. (2002). Mentoring programs and youth development: A synthesis. Washington, D.C.: Child Trends.
    The mid- to late 1980s saw the number of mentoring programs grow as the need for caring relationships between at-risk youth and adults became more obvious, and the shortcomings of some traditional programs and services for young people became more apparent. This synthesis examines the role that mentoring plays in helping youth develop a broad array of strengths and capacities in the following four areas of child well-being: education and cognitive attainment; health and safety; social and emotional wellbeing; and self-sufficiency. Program evaluations in this report all use a rigorous experimental methodology to test for the impact of program participation on youth outcomes.

  • Roberts, H., Liabo, K., Lucas, P, DuBois, D., and Sheldon, T.A. (February, 2004). Mentoring to reduce antisocial behaviour in childhood. British Journal of Medicine, 328, 512-514.
    The authors attempt to make the case that mentoring is poorly supported by research and that mentoring programs do more harm than good when not supported by research. While the authors present an interesting idea, their article fails to account for or mention research that actually contradicts their viewpoint. (Requires a paid subscription.)

  • Takama, J. (February 22, 2004). Good Turns: Tinseltown gives students a picture of their future: Teens work toward their high school diplomas while learning about the entertainment industry. L.A. Times
    A program created by the Hollywood Entertainment Museum provides mentors for teens on probation who are interested in various aspects of the entertainment business. The work in this after-school program counts towards high school graduation while students learn about show business. Participants are called interns and either graduate directly from the the program or transition back to their own high schools.

  • Abbott, I. and Boags, R. (2004). Mentoring across differences: A guide to cross-gender and cross-race mentoring. Washington, DC: Minority Corporate Counsel Association
    Originally designed as a study of diversity and mentoring in corporate law departments and the law firms that work with them, this year-long study yields practical advice and ideas for all mentors, mentees, and organizations. The authors examined five questions: (1) How lawyers build successful cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships; (2) How lawyers define reasonable expectations for cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships; (3) How lawyers build trust in cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships to promote open communication; (4) How lawyers develop the capability and comfort to discuss diversity issues in cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships; and (5) How lawyers are motivated to initiate cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships. The findings in this study, conducted by two top mentoring experts, provide considerable guidance for other mentoring venues and address issues about starting, supporting, and sustaining cross-gender and cross-race mentoring relationships. The authors found a number of surprising, yet consistent results and have included checklists and guides to help others benefit from the research. Access to the full article is available to Peer Resources Network members in the password protected area.

  • Kaye, B. (February 15, 2003). Fast-track mentoring: Sparking ideas for collaborative conversations. Link and Learn available online at
  • Clutterbuck, D. (November, 2003). Making the most of informal mentoring. C/A Article Series 3-11: Clutterbuck Associates.
    This paper supports the idea that a combination of informal and formal mentoring will provide the most effective impact for mentoring in an organization. The author details the key steps to stimulate informal mentoring by establishing a climate within which it can thrive. Complete paper available for
    download to Peer Resources Network members.

  • Vinh, T. (November 6, 2003). Mentors to aid novice teachers. The Seattle Times
    A brief description of a grant provided to the University of Washington from the Carnegie Corporation that will include mentoring master's-degree graduates in teaching during their first two years on the job in order to increase retention.

  • Haley, F. and Canabou, C. (October, 2003). Fast Talk: The mentors' mentors. Fast Company, 75, 59.
    Five top leaders talk about their mentors and what they learned from them. Warren Bennis tells how his mentor helped him learn how to identify "the handful of people who make all the difference in your life." Tim Murphy (football coach at Harvard) believe his mentors taught him to be a mentor "in terms of how you live your life." Betsy Bernard, President of AT&T learned from her mentors that "a great leader truly believes that personal development is a never-ending journey. If you can help people embrace and love continuous development, then you are really making a difference in their lives and careers." Dee Hock, founder of VISA, believes that mentoring is "little more than one of those management popularities so beloved by consultants." He portrays mentoring as demeaning and has the stench of injustice and hypocrisy because a select few are chosen and attended to, when all should be so engaged.

  • An Inspired Career - How to Get One (Online interview).
    Featuring Paige Arnoff, CEO of Mavens and Moguls, Mary Malloy, former IBM sales executive, and Lisa Levitt, consultant. According to Levitt, "I have a broad definition of mentors. There are people I know on a personal level who have extended their time to me. Then colleagues or leaders, when I was several levels below them, inspired me and demonstrated their ability. I could think to myself "what would they do" even if I couldn't ask them."

  • Grossman, J.B. (Editor) (1998). Contemporary issues in mentoring. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
    This edited booklet contains six articles: (1) The practice, quality and cost of mentoring; (2) Mentoring adolescents: What have we learned? (3) Assessing the effectiveness of mentoring programs; (4) The cost of mentoring; (5) Mentoring matters: A national survey of adults mentoring young people; and (6) Mentoring in 1998: Four models for the 21st century.

  • Jucovy, L. (2001). Building relationships: A guide for new mentors. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
    This paper answers the question of why some adult-youth mentoring relationships do well while others lose momentum. The key to success is the expectation of the mentor and the focus of the mentor on building the relationship (instead of reforming the youth, etc.). Based on research the author details why it isn't always easy to build friendly relationships and even mentors with good instincts can stumble or be blocked by difficulties. This guide describes ten important features of successful mentor attitudes and styles and describes how each one can be put into practice.

  • Jucovy, L. (2002) Same-Race and Cross-Race Matching Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
    - This article provides an overview of the arguments and research regarding same-race versus cross-race matching in youth to adult mentoring programs. In addition to examining the issues, the author provides practical guidance for how to use the findings within individual mentoring programs. The author believes that all mentors could probably benefit from training in cultural understanding and she provides information about conducting a training along with suggested activities.

  • Jucovy, L. (2001). Recruiting mentors: A guide to finding volunteers to work with youth. Public/Private Ventures.
    Every mentoring program struggles with recruiting safe, responsible adults to work with youth. Based on effective practices used by volunteer-based organizations and on research findings about mentoring, the author describes recruitment strategies that can be adapted to meet the unique aspects of individual youth mentoring programs. For example, by knowing that a decision to volunteer is a two-step process and organization can use this process to develop their recruiting strategy. The booklet describes how to build a specific mentor recruitment plan, particularily using college students and older adults. Checklists and worksheets are included as well as sample forms and useful readings.

  • Birkett Morris, E. (March 7, 2003). Peer mentoring can offer career boost, requires trust. Business First: The Weekly Business Newspaper of Greater Louisville. Retrieved from March 11, 2003.
    Using the experience of the director of economic development as an example, peer mentoring is discussed and its benefits are outlined. Typically business people can rely on several peer mentors. Often these mentors are not part of a formal mentoring program and peer mentoring can easily evolve into a lasting friendship. The focus of peer mentoring can be on career development, leadership succession, becoming more objective about decision making, and taking a larger perspective. Persons interviewed for this article believed that naturally occuring mentoring relationships provide stronger connections than those typically associated with formal mentoring programs where people are assigned to each other. Openness to advice was described as a key to the success of peer mentoring. Mentored individuals were described as more empowered, engaged, knowledgeable, and dedicated.

  • Shenkman, M. (February 28, 2003). Mentoring is the magic that builds leaders. New Mexico Business Weekly. (Available online.)
    The author works with Next Generation Economy that has created a mentoring program for executives who have started or run organizations. The article focuses on how a mentor differs from a coach or manager who is often concerned with outcomes, performance or minimizing failure. Instead a mentor can be challenging and can handle a partner failing in an endeavor. However, the mentor is often there to help the partner make a "soft landing" and learn from the mistake or experience the pain.

  • Davis, B. (January 17, 2003). Making a difference: Mentoring is big business. The Business Journal: Serving Jacksonville and Northeast Florida. (Available online.)
    Descriptions of local business leaders and their mentorship connections with students in local area schools. The successful impact of the relationships on the students and mentors includes student academic improvement, improved self-esteem and employee morale growth. Factors that contributed to the success of the program include; a program overseer, support from multiple levels (including support from co-workers who may have to cover while a mentor is meeting with a student), and clear guidelines regarding time and goals.

  • Goldsmith, B. (January 3, 2003). A mentor's duties don't include counseling. Business First: The Weekly Business Newspaper of Greater Louisville. (Available online.)
    The author believes that counseling is helping employees deal with unexpected emotions, tears and outright anger. He warns that dealing with these emotions is not part of a mentor's job; a mentor might be placing themselves and the company at risk if they try to deal with highly charged emotional issues. If a mentor encounters such issues they should check what it is the other person wants by bringing it to the attention of the mentor. The mentor also needs to be willing to refer to other resources (EAP, professional counsellor, etc.)

  • Moscinski, P. (July/August, 2002). Take charge of your mentoring experience. Healthcare Executive, 17, 4.
    The author provides specific advice to the partners (proteges) in a mentoring relationship that they will benefit most if they lead the pairing. The partner is really in charge of determining the outcome and the author provides guidance as to the different ways a variety of outcomes can be maximized. (This article is also available through Perrone-Ambrose Mentors Plus Leaders' Update - It can be downloaded here in a pdf format.

  • Johnson, C. (May 13, 2002). Aiming to advance? Networking can speed your climb.
    Having mentor circles, where you surround yourself with mentors can propel your career. Brief descriptions of organizations that help to achieve this approach are profiled.

  • Warner, F (April, 2002). Inside Intel's Mentoring Movement, Fast Company, 57, 116-120.
    The old model of using mentoring for career advancement is thrown out in favor of a highly successful system of matching mentors and partners based on skills and learning mastery.

  • Galvin, T. (March, 2002). The 2002 top 100. Training, 39, 3, 20+.
    In a recent ranking of the top 100 U.S. organizations that excel in human capital development, seventy-seven per cent of the companies in the top 100 have formal mentoring programs. Not surprising when considering that mentoring significantly contributes to career development, retention and leadership succession. The rankings were based on a number of qualitative and quantitative measures and the top 100 were selected out of an initial potential pool of 155,000 applications. Most of the questions focused on company training and development activities and rankings were based on a point system created by the editorial staff at the magazine.

  • Peer Resources Papers on Mentoring - A series of papers on various subjects associated with mentoring in schools and corporations.

  • The Real Story About the Origin of the Term Mentor - Guess what? It didn't start with Homer's classic and the mentor recruited by Odysseus for his son Telemachus would have fizzled rather than sizzled. (Peer Resources Network members only.)

  • >U.S. House Passes Resolution Endorsing Mentoring
    An article on the National Mentoring Partnership website that chronicles the discussion and praise given to mentoring during the passage of a resolution in support of mentoring.

  • Holy Mentormony - An article by Sarah Max on the site that details the potential life-changing aspects of having a mentor.

  • Mentors - A description of the value of mentors in business written by Canadian business leader, Marshall W. Northcott.

  • Minority Student Retention and Academic Achievement in Community Colleges - An ERIC Digest written by Katalin Szelenyi that cites among other factors mentoring as one of the key elements to retain minority students.

  • The Role Models
    A transcript of an interview of Marian Wright Edelman, author of Lanterns: A Memoir of Mentors. Ms. Edelman talks about various mentors in her life and the impact they had on her resilience and success. She particularly stresses the importance of mentoring for young people.

  • Mentoring in the Legal Profession
    An excellent paper from the New York Law Journal that describes the value of mentoring in law firms and gives hints about how to establish successful mentoring programs. This paper was written by Ida Abbott who has also authored one of the best books on mentoring.

  • Articles about Mentoring in the Medical Professions

  • The Mentor as Partner
    An online article by Chip Bell that originally appeared in Training and Development, Feb, 2000, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p52.

  • Acting as a Mentor
    Published by the Royal Bank of Canada, this document provides a brief history of mentoring, some ideas on the value of mentoring and hints on finding and being an effective mentor.

  • Mentoring: A Practitioner's Guide
    A description of how mentoring is carried out at a major aerospace corporation, written by Adrianne H. Geiger-DuMond and Susan K. Boyle.

  • Mentoring Two by Two
    An article about how mentoring is conducted at a leading computer manufacturer by Denise Bolden Coley.

  • Mentoring: A Group Guide
    Beverly Kay and Betsy Jacobson describe how a mentor can guide a group of partners to gain organizational smarts and greater career growth.

  • Sipe, C.L. and Roder, A.E. (1999). Mentoring school-age children: A classification of programs. Public/Private Ventures.
    This study was conducted at the request of The National Mentoring Partnership with funding from the U.S. Department of Education. This report from the study of 722 mentoring programs describes the characteristics of the programs, their mentors and the youth they serve. The authors conclude that although one-on-one mentoring has shown effectiveness, site-based or group mentoring programs—can also be effective in fostering positive relationships between youth and volunteer mentors and may have advantages such as a lessened need for screening and/or training standards. Group mentoring also deals with insufficient numbers of volunteers without sacrificing quality.

  • Sipe, C.L. (undated). Mentoring: A synthesis of P/PV's research: 1988-1995. Public/Private Ventures.
    The author summarizes the findings of 10 reports that focused on mentoring. Among the findings that are clearly documented by the reports are (1) participating in mentoring programs leads to important and observable changes in both attitudes and behaviours of youth at-risk; (2) there are key practices that characterize effective mentoring relationships; (3) certain program structures and supports are essential to maximize best practices among mentors (with matching being the least critical element); and (4) there are enough adults with the time and resources to assist as mentors with youth at-risk. The author makes suggestions for what lies ahead and then provides actual summaries of each of the ten reports this synthesis is based upon.

  • Tips for Developing a Mentoring Program by Judith G. Lindenberger and Lois J. Zachary. This article which appeared in the Career Journal of the Wall Street Journal focuses on 20 key questions the answers to which clearly identify what makes the difference between organizations that achieve great success in rolling out a mentoring program and those that just squeek by. Each question is presented in a do and don't format and the information is practical and highly informative.

  • Abandoned - What happens when a mentor moves up or out and you find yourself working for someone new? How will your life change?

  • Cross Ethnic Mentoring
    Having a corporate mentor or supervisor of the same ethnicity may not be enough to help minorities climb the corporate ladder, according to an article that appeared in the June 1, 2001 Washington Post.

  • Ask Dr. Dana
    Peer mentoring is described as a way to help top managers late to the game at a startup get integrated into a company's culture. (No longer available)

  • A Chart Summarizing the Similarities and Differences between Intentional Mentoring, Traditional Mentoring, Peer Mentoring and Transition Mentoring

  • A Summary of the Issues, Concepts, and Practices of Two 1999 Conference on Mentoring by Rey Carr (A pdf file)

  • Peer Mentorship: Rationale and Recommendations for Communities

  • Oddysey: The Mentor Newsletter Vol. 4 No. 1

  • The International Telementoring Project - This paper describes the project involving more than 5000 students, details how to become a mentor sponsor, and provides anecdotes as well as other data about the results. (PDF File)

  • Electronic Mentoring: Issues to Achieve, Research and Practice - The authors, Peg Boyle Single and Carol B. Muller, define e-mentoring and structured e-mentoring programs, identify their promise and highlight some potential pitfalls. They suggest a model for conducting structured mentoring programs and apply this model to the e-mentoring format. In the process of applying this model to the e-mentoring format, they identify open research questions pertaining to e-mentoring.

  • Mentoring Beginning Teachers: Lessons from the Experience in Texas
    A comprehensive and practical report from the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory that provides a review of the literature, summary of results, case studies, and practical ideas for excellence in teacher mentoring.

  • Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering - Prepared in 1997 by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, this guide is for faculty members, teachers, administrators, and others who advise and mentor students of science and engineering. The guide summarizes features that are common to successful mentoring relationships and emphasizes mentoring habits that are in the best interests of both parties to the relationship. While this guide is meant for mentoring students in science and engineering the majority of it is widely applicable to mentoring in any field.

  • Who Finds a Mentor, Finds a Treasure - From a newspaper in India with an example of the value of mentoring.

  • The Value of a Business Mentor - Written by Larry Kesslin, President & Chief Community Officer of the Let's Talk Business Network.

  • Executive Mentoring by Dr. Mike Turner. The increasing attention to customers and stakeholders makes mentoring even more important at the executive level. This paper describes the benefits of mentoring for the indvidual and the organization and provides a framework to help make decisions about mentoring program elements.

  • Women in Business Find a Mentor Stories - Created by the Women in Business Field fo Dreams Cyberspace (Women Helping Women in Business) and provides stories of women and their mentors.

  • Formal Programs Promote the Age-Old Custom of Mentoring by Steve Bunk
    A description of how various mentor programs, particularly those in the sciences, are helping young people. Originally published in The Scientist, Vol:11, 19, p. 15-16, September 29, 1997.

  • Vocational and psychosocial mentoring functions: Identifying mentors who serve both by Ellen J. Mullen. - This article is published in the Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9, 4, and the complete text is available online. The study revealed that mentors with greater organization-based self-esteem, with perceptions that the protege is competent, and who are influenced by their proteges reported serving more vocational and psychosocial functions for their proteges. Proteges indicated that who initiates the relationship impacts the serving of combined vocational and psychosocial functions.

  • Flinders University Mentoring Program for Women (Adelaide, Australia)
    A comprehensive set of guidelines covering all aspects of mentoring for women. The guidelines include topics such as: defining mentoring roles, listing benefits for the mentor, the partner, and the organization, the rationale for why women need mentors and a list of principles for effective mentor program. Principles include commitment, needs assessment, expected outcomes, current resources, a strong degree of formality, open communication, confidentiality, clear objectives and planning, clarified mentor role and special qualities required, the importance of training, involvement of managers or supervisors, agreements, rewards, coordination and evaluation. Particular difficulties for women are discussed such as being mentored by men, uneven power alignments, interference with normal work, and elitism and jealousy. The guidelines also cover how to start a program if one is not currently operating, what to look for in seeking a mentor and where to find a suitable mentor and how to manage a mentoring relationship. A key feature of this paper are brief testimonials from women in public and private employment describing their mentor experiences, the qualities they believe are important in a mentor, how to locate a mentor, pitfalls, and advice to others seeking mentors.

  • Zimmer, B.P. and Smith, K.L. (1992). Successful mentoring for new agents. Journal of Extension, 30, 1, (Online).
    Building helping relationships is a critical rung on the career development ladder for new employees. Most organizations use an orientation program to help with the process of integrating personally and professionally into the organization. Increasingly, organizations are using the benefits of mentoring as a part of the orientation process. Many state Extension Services have incorporated mentoring relationships into traditional training and development programs because mentoring objectives can be effectively accomplished in a relatively short period of time.

  • Mentoring Myths and Tips by Nancy Henry of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (Excerpted from The Resource Connection, Vol 2, No. 2, June, 1996. Explores and debunks three prevalent myths about mentoring and shares ten tips for effective mentoring.

  • Learn to Win and Mentor Others by Lou Tice (Excerpted from Personal Excellence Magazine, 1994).This online article places a strong emphasis on what mentors gain from mentoring others. Mentoring others to greatness is probably one of the finest acts that can be offered from one person to another.

  • How to Get the Mentoring You Want: A Guide for Graduate Students at a Diverse University.
    The Rackham Graduate School at the University of Michigan created these resources to provide advice on establishing mentoring relationships based on mutual understanding and realistic expectations. They also feature summaries of the challenges that face historically underrepresented and other student groups, as well as observations and suggestions for the ways faculty and students can address those challenges (pdf file).

  • How to Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide for Faculty at a Diverse University - The Rackham Graduate School at the University of Michigan created these resources to provide advice on establishing mentoring relationships based on mutual understanding and realistic expectations. They also feature summaries of the challenges that face historically underrepresented and other student groups, as well as observations and suggestions for the ways faculty and students can address those challenges (pdf file).

  • Mentoring Guide
    A comprehensive paper describing types of mentors, a hierarchy of mentoring relationships, expectations and benefits of mentoring, information on how to find a mentor, a list of questions to ask a mentor, and special sections on mentoring women and mentoring minorities.

  • Eliminating Barriers to Improving Teaching by Terry Dozier and Candace Bertotti. - This PDF document was prepared by the US Department of Education and focuses on teacher recruitment, preparation, licensing and certification standards, professional development, and retention, as well as the development of school leaders. Each chapter defines barriers to that challenge, suggests ways around each barrier, and mentions an existing effort to address that barrier. Mentoring is recommended as a way to stregthen both teaching and school leadership.

  • Systematic Mentoring for New Faculty Teachers and Graduate Teaching Assistants by Peg Boyle and Bob Boice - Reports on the development and assessment of two mentoring programs, one for new faculty and one for new graduate teaching assistants. Relationship factors led to best outcomes for faculty partners and group meetings produced promising results for graduate students. Styles and skills of exemplary mentors are discussed.

  • Faculty Mentorship - Sponsored by the Tufts University Center for Teaching Excellence, this paper provides a brief introduction to mentoring in higher education, lists mentoring links, including a number of mentoring programs in higher education settings, and annotates a few articles on mentoring. (Note: this site does not detail the mentoring practices at this university, therefore it is listed on these pages rather than in the Peer Resources list of Mentor Programs.)

  • Telementoring New Education Leaders - One of the pioneering participants in the California Telemation Project, Rob King, describes the impact of the peer-to-peer mentoring project for teachers.

  • Yes, You Can: A Guide for Establishing Mentoring Programs to Prepare Youth for College - A fifty-five page guide with practical information for employers, college students, senior citizens, community-based organizations, with details on program planning, needs assessment, mentor program goals and objectives, and recruiting, selecting, training and matching mentors. Also provide profiles of mentoring programs.

  • The Dynamics of Mentoring as a Route to Individual and Organisational Learning by Richard Hale.

  • Career Mentoring: Women Helping Women (from Chatelaine Magazine) by Veronique Robert.

  • Career Mentoring: Women Helping Women Carrière - Mentorat – Aidez-vous les unes les autres. (from Chatelaine Magazine in French) by Veronique Robert.

  • New Perspectives on Mentoring - A digest from ERIC written by Sandra Kerka in 1998, summarizing various mentor concepts, paradigms, and practices.

  • US Office of Education Research Consumer Guide on Mentoring - Originally written in 1993 this guide covers areas such as mentoring definitions, purpose, examples, research, and resources.

  • Mentoring as a Component of the Creating Safe and Drug Free Schools Action Guide
    Written in 1996, this guide provides the rationale for mentoring and ideas about recruiting, selecting mentors and mentees, coordination, assessment, goal setting, and other topics.

    An executive summary in either PDF or Word format that provides the details about how adult mentors, who read once a week with students who read below grade level, increased those students' academic performance and classroom behavior improve. The Department study was conducted on Everybody Wins Power Lunch, a privately funded program that pairs professionals with disadvantaged elementary students in Washington, D.C. area schools. Among the findings: 25 percent of participating students who were reading below grade level improved their academic performance, more than double the 12 percent in the control group, and 55 percent of poor readers in the program always or often enjoyed reading, compared to 31 percent of control group students.

  • A Survey of Mentoring Programs in Canada
    The results of a survey of early childhood organizations in Canada that have initiated mentoring strategies. The survey examined definitions of mentoring, what supports were in place and what partnerships and training the various organizations used. This report was prepared by Partners in Practice and is one of the documents available on their website.

  • Mentoring Enhances Mercedes-Benz Ability to Recruit New Talent by Debbie Scheinholtz (on the website).
    Managers volunteer to act as mentors to interns.

  • Variety of Programs Meet Needs of Mentors and Mentees
    Describes five different types of mentoring programs and their impact on everyone involved.

  • Training Mentors: A Catalyst for Changing the Climate for Women in Science and Engineering.

  • 1999 Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring (Call for Nominations) - A program, administered on behalf of the White House by the National Science Foundation, that identifies outstanding mentoring efforts and programs designed to enhance the participation of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics and engineering. A grant in the amount of $10,000 will accompany the award. Details about eligibility, selection criteria, and application procedures. (Deadline: March 31, 1999, but site includes valuable perspective on mentoring in addition to award procedures.

  • Make a Friend: Be a Peer Mentor - Defines peer mentoring within the juvenile justice system and gives examples of how peer mentoring contributes to crime prevention.

  • The American Psychological Association's index of Peer Mentoring programs and papers - A number of articles from the APA monitor providing tips on establishing a peer mentor program in post-secondary organizations.

  • Anonymous (1966). For parents with children in mentoring programs: Guidelines, ground rules, and answers to questions. Sacramento, CA: The Resource Center, Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs. Available to Peer Resources Network members.
    This document was originally designed as a pamphlet to educate parents about what to expect from mentoring, how to support the mentoring relationship, and how to deal with potential conflicts between parenting practices and mentoring interactions.

  • Warrant Officer Mentorship Program - A guide developed for the Warrant Officer Senior Staff Course in the US Army Reserve.

  • Education Consumer Guide Number 7, October 1993, Mentoring

  • Guidelines for School Officials, Volunteers and Mentors: Participating in Public School Community Partnerships
    Presents guidelines based on the First Amendment of the US Constitution for faith communities in public schools. This pamphlet outlines the responsibilities of schools in forming partnerships with Faith-based communities and clarifies what volunteers can and cannot do in public schools.

  • Feiman-Nemser, S. (July, 1996). Teacher Mentoring: A Critical Review

  • Anonymous. (February, 1997). Mentoring in Montana: Teachers Get Early Career Help. National Science Foundation.


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